Biological aspects of bone growth and metabolism in orthodontics

Song Chen, James K. Hartsfield, W. Eugene Roberts

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Bone growth and development is central to the practice of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics. This chapter reviews in detail the basics of bone biology of facial bones, its growth and development, its adaptive mechanisms to mechanical forces applied along with a note on temporomandibular joint (TMJ) adaptation and how dentofacial orthopedics brings in bone changes. The neural crest is divided into four functional domains, such as: cranial neural crest (CNC), trunk neural crest, vagal and saccral neural crest, and cardiac neural crest. One of the most distinctive features of bone remodeling of both cortical and trabecular bone is the precise coupling of bone resorption and formation. All remodeling activity plays a role in calcium metabolism: the balance of bone resorption and formation at any point in time controls the net balance of ionic calcium released into the extracellular fluid.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationBiological Mechanisms of Tooth Movement
Subtitle of host publicationSecond Edition
Number of pages20
ISBN (Electronic)9781118916148
StatePublished - Jun 26 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. All rights reserved.


  • Bone growth
  • Calcium metabolism
  • Dentofacial orthopedics
  • Neural crest
  • Orthodontics
  • Temporomandibular joint (TMJ)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Dentistry


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