Biological transformation, kinetics and dose-response assessments of bound musk ketone hemoglobin adducts in rainbow trout as biomarkers of environmental exposure

Mottaleb MA, Zimmerman JH, Moy TW

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Low levels (ng/g) of musk ketone (MK), used as a fragrance additive in the formulation of personal care products, are frequently detected in the water and other environment. Thus, aquatic organisms can be continuously exposed to MK. In this study, kinetics and dose-response assessments of 2-amino-MK (AMK) metabolite, bound to cysteine-hemoglobin (Hb) in rainbow trout, formed by enzymatic nitro-reduction of MK have been demonstrated. Trout were exposed to a single exposure of 0.010, 0.030, 0.10, and 0.30 mg MK/g fish. Twenty-seven Hb samples were collected from exposed- and control fish subsequent to exposure intervals of 1 d (24 h), 3 d (72 h), and 7 d (168 h). Basic hydrolysis released bound AMK metabolite was extracted into n-hexane and then concentrated and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) electron capture negative ion chemical ionization (NICI) mass spectrometry (MS) using selected ion monitoring (SIM). The presence of the AMK metabolite in Hb extracts was confirmed by agreement of similar mass spectral features and retention time with a standard. In the dose-response study, maximum adduct formation was obtained at the 0.10 mg/g dose with an average AMK metabolite concentration of 2.2 ng/g. For kinetics, the highest concentration of the AMK metabolite was found to be 32.0 ng/g at 0.030 mg/g dose in 3-d sample. Further elimination of the metabolite showed kinetics with a half-life estimated to be 2 d, assuming first-order kinetics. The metabolite was not detected in the control samples, non-hydrolyzed Hb, and reagent blank extracts. The detection limit for AMK in the Hb was approximately 0.30 ng/g, based on a signal to noise ratio of 3 (S/N = 3).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)878-884
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Environmental Sciences
Volume20
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - 2008

Keywords

  • biomarker
  • biotransformation
  • dose-response
  • fish
  • hemoglobin adducts
  • kinetics
  • nitro musks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Environmental Science (all)

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