Biomechanical comparison of quadriceps tendon fixation with patellar tendon bone plug interference fixation in cruciate ligament reconstruction

Jeff Brand, Doris Hamilton, Jeff Selby, David Pienkowski, David N.M. Caborn, Darren L. Johnson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to use current fixation techniques and compare the stiffness and ultimate tensile failure of the tendinous end of the quadriceps tendon (QT) with the bone plug end of the bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) graft using current techniques of fixation. Type of Study: Randomized trial of elderly cadaver knees. Materials and Methods: Tibial and femoral biodegradable interference fixation and femoral EndoButton (Smith and Nephew, Acufex, Mansfield, MA) fixation in bone tunnels with the QT and the BPTB graft were compared by using 10 pairs of elderly cadavers and biomechanical testing. Two groups, fixation at time zero (simulating fixation in the operating room) and testing after 1,000 loading cycles (simulating patient rehabilitation exercises), were used. Results: At time zero fixation, stiffness of the soft tissue QT tibial tunnel interference fixation was 59% less stiff than the stiffness of the interference fixation of a BPTB plug in a femoral tunnel (P = .11). The EndoButton femoral fixation resulted in a decrease in stiffness at time zero compared with femoral tunnel interference fixation of the soft tissue QT (P = .03). All groups improved stiffness with cycling the construct to 1,000 cycles. Conclusions: Placement of the QT tendinous end of the graft in the femoral bone tunnel when using a interference fixation will approximate the stiffness of a bone plug in the tibial bone tunnel with interference fixation. The EndoButton fixation is not as stiff as either of the femoral interference fixation options. The addition of more than 20 loading cycles could remove laxity from the graft fixation-graft cruciate ligament complex and improve its stiffness.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)805-812
Number of pages8
Issue number8
StatePublished - 2000


  • Cruciate ligament fixation
  • Patellar tendon
  • Quadriceps tendon

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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