Biplane angiography for experimental validation of computational fluid dynamic models of blood flow in artificial lungs

Cameron C. Jones, Patrizio Capasso, James M. Mcdonough, Dongfang Wang, Kyle S. Rosenstein, Joseph B. Zwischenberger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


This article presents an investigation into the validation of velocity fields obtained from computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models of flow through the membrane oxygenators using x-ray digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Computational fluid dynamic is a useful tool in characterizing artificial lung devices, but numerical results must be experimentally validated. We used DSA to visualize flow through a membrane oxygenator at 2 L/min using 37% glycerin at 22 C. A Siemens Artis Zee system acquired biplane x-ray images at 7.5 frames per second, after infusion of an iodinated contrast agent at a rate of 33 ml/s. A maximum cross-correlation (MCC) method was used to track the contrast perfusion through the fiber bundle. For the CFD simulations, the fiber bundle was treated as a single momentum sink according to the Ergun equation. Blood was modeled as a Newtonian fluid, with constant viscosity (3.3 cP) and density (1050 kg/m). Although CFD results and experimental pressure measurements were in general agreement, the simulated 2 L/min perfusion did not reproduce the flow behavior seen in vitro. Simulated velocities in the fiber bundle were on average 42% lower than experimental values. These results indicate that it is insufficient to use only pressure measurements for validation of the flow field because pressure-validated CFD results can still significantly miscalculate the physical velocity field. We have shown that a clinical x-ray modality, together with a MCC tracking algorithm, can provide a nondestructive technique for acquiring experimental data useful for validation of the velocity field inside membrane oxygenators.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)397-404
Number of pages8
JournalASAIO Journal
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2013


  • Ergun equation
  • artificial lung
  • computational fluid dynamics
  • maximum cross-correlation
  • x-ray

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Bioengineering
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering


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