The ever-growing trend of making the traditional power grids smarter than before has resulted in their gradual evolution to more sophisticated grids, referred to as Smart Grids (SGs) Cyber-Physical Systems with complex networking technologies. The integration of Information and Communication Technologies with power grids fosters seamless data sharing between different SG entities, which supports effective and smart governance in terms of demand response management, frequency support, and voltage stabilization. Nonetheless, this integration opens up several security and privacy concerns, namely, electricity theft, power loss, battery exhaustion, infrastructure mapping, etc. These issues become even more important with the addition of distributed energy sources, e.g. electric vehicles (EVs), battery energy storage systems, and renewable energy sources, into the SGs. We present a framework based on Software Defined Networking (SDN) and BlockChain (BC) to address two challenging issues of EV-aided SG ecosystems, namely, privacy assurance and power security. We leverage the capabilities of SDN to handle the complex interactions between different subsystems of the SG. Furthermore, we also employ BC and smart contracts' properties to secure energy transactions and data communications. We design a secure and efficient mutual authentication protocol based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) and BC for privacy preservation during smart energy trading. We also proposed a BC-based smart contract for effective Demand Response Management (DRM) during bidirectional energy transfer between EVs and SG. Finally, we present experimental evaluations to validate the proposed framework's performance. The results obtained demonstrate the improved performance of the proposed scheme compared with current state-of-the-art approaches. The mutual authentication protocol designed is not only secure against major attack vectors (namely, session key security, message integrity, anonymity, forward secrecy, and so on), but it is also cost-efficient in terms of communication and computational costs. Additionally, the SC designed assures power security and maintains an adequate balance between demand and supply.
|Number of pages||12|
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems|
|State||Published - Aug 2021|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Manuscript received April 27, 2020; revised October 6, 2020; accepted November 23, 2020. Date of publication April 19, 2021; date of current version August 9, 2021. This work was supported in part by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) and in part by the Tier 2 Canada Research Chair on the Next Generations of Wireless IoT Networks. The Associate Editor for this article was M. Guizani. (Corresponding author: Kuljeet Kaur.) Kuljeet Kaur and Georges Kaddoum are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, École de Technologie Supérieure, Université du Québec, Montréal, QC H3C 1K3, Canada (e-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org).
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- electric vehicles
- energy security
- smart contract
- smart grid
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Automotive Engineering
- Mechanical Engineering
- Computer Science Applications