Bone Density and Dental External Apical Root Resorption

Alejandro Iglesias-Linares, Lorri Ann Morford, James Kennedy Hartsfield

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


When orthodontic patients desire shorter treatment times with aesthetic results and long-term stability, it is important for the orthodontist to understand the potential limitations and problems that may arise during standard and/or technology-assisted accelerated treatment. Bone density plays an important role in facilitating orthodontic tooth movement (OTM), such that reductions in bone density can significantly increase movement velocity. Lifestyle, genetic background, environmental factors, and disease status all can influence a patients’ overall health and bone density. In some individuals, these factors may create specific conditions that influence systemic-wide bone metabolism. Both genetic variation and the onset of a bone-related disease can influence systemic bone density and local bone density, such as observed in the mandible and maxilla. These types of localized density changes can affect the rate of OTM and may also influence the risk of unwanted outcomes, i.e., the occurrence of dental external apical root resorption (EARR).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)292-309
Number of pages18
JournalCurrent Osteoporosis Reports
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


  • Bone density
  • EARR
  • Genetics
  • IL1B
  • OPG
  • Orthodontics
  • P2RX7
  • Root resorption
  • Tooth movement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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