Bovine rhinitis B virus is highly prevalent in acute bovine respiratory disease and causes upper respiratory tract infection in calves

Shaurav Bhattarai, Chun Ming Lin, Gun Temeeyasen, Rachel Palinski, Feng Li, Radhey S. Kaushik, Ben M. Hause

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4 Scopus citations


Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most significant cause of cattle morbidity and mortality worldwide. This multifactorial disease has a complex aetiology. Dogma posits a primary viral infection followed by secondary bacterial pneumonia. Bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) is an established aetiological agent of BRD, but little is known regarding its pathogenesis. Here, a BRD PCR panel identified 18/153 (11.8%) lung samples and 20/49 (40.8%) nasal swabs collected from cattle with respiratory signs as positive for BRBV, which was the most prevalent virus in nasal swabs. Primary bovine tracheal epithelial cells were used to isolate BRBV that was phylogenetically related to contemporary sequences from the USA and Mexico and genetically divergent from the previous sole BRBV isolate. To investigate virus pathogenesis, 1-week-old colostrum-deprived dairy calves were inoculated intranasally with 7.0 log10TCID50BRBV. Virus was isolated from nasal swabs, nasal turbinates, trachea and the brain of the challenged animals. Neutralizing antibodies were detected beginning 7days post-inoculation and peaked at day 14. In situ hybridization (ISH) localized BRBV infection in the upper respiratory ciliated epithelial and goblet cells, occasionally associated with small defects of the superficial cilia lining. Sporadically, pinpoint ISH signals were also detected in cells resembling glial cells in the cerebrum in one calf. Together, these results demonstrate the BRBV infection is highly prevalent in acute BRD samples and while the pathogenicity of BRBV is minimal with infection largely limited to the upper respiratory tract, further research is needed to elucidate a possible initiatory role in BRD.

Original languageEnglish
Article number001714
JournalJournal of General Virology
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2022

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  • Bovine respiratory disease
  • Bovine rhinitis virus
  • Picornavirus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology


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