Bradyzoite and sexual stage development

Anthony P. Sinai, Laura J. Knoll, Louis M. Weiss

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Advances in our understanding of bradyzoite biology, the regulation of the tachyzoite to bradyzoite transition, and the programs driving differentiation have been facilitated by the identification of markers and the application of genetic approaches and imaging-based tools to this asexual life cycle stage involved in chronic infection. While originally thought to be static, evidence has accumulated that cysts are dynamic structures and that bradyzoites within cysts are heterogeneous. The formation of the cyst wall is an early event in differentiation, and its composition is now being elucidated. Significant advances in our understanding of the sexual cycle have also occurred, resulting in the development of both cell culture and murine systems that recapitulate the sexual cycle. This advance addresses a major bottleneck for investigations and has opened the gates to a broader dissection of the sexual life cycle stages.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationToxoplasma Gondii
Subtitle of host publicationThe Model Apicomplexan - Perspectives and Methods
Number of pages51
ISBN (Electronic)9780128150412
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.


  • Asexual life cycle
  • Bradyzoite
  • Cyst wall composition
  • Differentiation
  • Oocyst
  • Sexual life cycle
  • Stage-specific expression
  • Tissue cyst

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Immunology and Microbiology


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