The HSV-1 tegument protein VP16 contains a trans-activation domain (TAD) that is required for induction of immediate early (IE) genes during lytic infection and induced reactivation from latency. Here we report the differential contributions of the two sub-regions of the TAD in neuronal and non-neuronal cells during activation of IE gene expression, virus replication, and reactivation from quiescently infected (QIF)-PC12 cells. Our studies show that VP16- and chemical (hexamethylenebisacetamide)-induced IE gene activation is attenuated in neuronal cells. Irrespective of neuronal or non-neuronal cell backgrounds, IE gene activation demonstrated a greater requirement for the N-terminal sub-region of VP16 TAD (VP16N) than the C-terminal sub-region (VP16C). In surprising contrast to these findings, a recombinant virus (RP4) containing the VP16N deletion was capable of modest forskolin-induced reactivation whereas a recombinant (RP3) containing a deletion of VP16C was incapable of stress-induced reactivation from QIF-PC12 cells. These unique process-dependent functions of the VP16 TAD sub-regions may be important during particular stages of the virus life cycle (lytic, entrance, and maintenance of a quiescent state and reactivation) when viral DNA would be expected to be differentially modified.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Journal of NeuroVirology|
|State||Published - Feb 2013|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Dental Craniofacial Research, no. DE014142 (to C.S.M.).
- Herpes simplex virus
- QIF-PC12 cells
- Viral latency and quiescence
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience