Objective: To identify, in children the normal rate of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) progression, and whether presence of cardiometabolic risk factors is associated with cfPWV. Study design: Electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar) were searched from inception to May 2018, for all studies which reported cfPWV in children (<19 years of age). Random effects meta-regression quantified the association between time (years) and cfPWV, and a systematic review was performed to determine whether cardiometabolic risk factors are associated with cfPWV. Results: Data from 28 articles were eligible for inclusion, including 9 reference value (n = 13 100), 5 cardiovascular risk (n = 5257), 10 metabolic risk (n = 2999), and 8 obesity-focused (n = 8760) studies. Meta-regression findings (9 studies) showed that the increase in cfPWV per year (age) was 0.12 m/second (95% CI, 0.07-0.16 m/second) per year, and when stratified by sex the CIs overlapped. Systematic review findings showed that cardiometabolic risk factors were positively associated with cfPWV, including positive associations with blood pressure, impaired glucose metabolism, and metabolic syndrome. However, obesity was not consistently associated with cfPWV. Conclusions: Arterial stiffness in children progresses with age and is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors. Although further longitudinal studies are warranted, the presented reference data will be valuable to epidemiologists tracking children, and to scientists and clinicians prescribing therapies to mitigate risk in a population that is increasingly more vulnerable to cardiovascular disease.
|Journal||Journal of Pediatrics|
|State||Published - Mar 2020|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
M.M. was supported by the National Institutes of Health Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women's Health (5K12HD001441).
© 2019 Elsevier Inc.
- arterial stiffness
- cardiovascular disease
- risk factors
- vascular age
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health