Changing demographics and risk factors for cryptococcosis: A 12-year review at a tertiary care centre

Mahesh Bhatt, J. Zachary Porterfield, Julie A. Ribes, Vaneet Arora, Thein Myint

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Background: Cryptococcosis is classically associated with the immunocompromised patients but there is a rising appreciation for its impact on the immunocompetent hosts. We sought to analyse the trends, diagnosis, treatment of different hosts and the effect of immunodeficiency and chronic liver disease on relapse and in-house mortality. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 12 years of patients with cryptococcosis, divided into three different groups: HIV-infected, transplant and non-HIV non-transplant (NHNT). Data were analysed with Chi-square, unpaired parametric t test, simple and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Of 114 identified patients, 23 (20.2%) had HIV infection, 11 (9.6%) had transplant, 80 (70.2%) were NHNT patients. Overall, mortality was 28.1% (32/114) and relapse occurred in 10.5% (12/114) of patients. The mortality trend was higher (OR = 2.346, p =.287) in the transplant group (45.5%, 5/11) than in HIV (26.1%, 6/23) and NHNT groups (26.3%, 21/80). HIV was associated with relapse; 30.4% (7/23) for HIV-positive patients and 5.5% (5/91) for HIV-negative patients (OR = 7.525, p =.002). Chronic liver disease had a large and statistically significant association with mortality on multivariate analysis (OR = 3.583, p =.013) which was more pronounced than the HIV or transplant groups. It was independently associated with mortality by chi-square analysis (OR 3.137, p =.012). Conclusion: Chronic liver disease represented 30.7% (35/114) of all studied patients. It was a risk factor for in-hospital mortality. HIV infection and transplant were not statistically significant for mortality. Relapse was highest in the HIV-infected patients at 30.4% (7/23). These data highlight the effect of type and degree of immunocompromise on cryptococcosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1073-1082
Number of pages10
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Wiley-VCH GmbH


  • HIV
  • chronic liver disease
  • cryptococcus
  • immunocompromise
  • transplant

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dermatology
  • Infectious Diseases


Dive into the research topics of 'Changing demographics and risk factors for cryptococcosis: A 12-year review at a tertiary care centre'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this