Characterization of a novel influenza virus in cattle and swine: Proposal for a new genus in the Orthomyxoviridae family

Ben M. Hause, Emily A. Collin, Runxia Liu, Bing Huang, Zizhang Sheng, Wuxun Lu, Dan Wang, Eric A. Nelson, Feng Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

266 Scopus citations


We have recently reported the isolation of a novel virus, provisionally designated C/swine/Oklahoma/1334/2011 (C/ OK), with 50% overall homology to human influenza C viruses (ICV), from a pig in Oklahoma. Deep RNA sequencing of C/OK virus found a matrix 1 (M1) protein expression strategy that differed from that of ICV. The novelty of C/OK virus prompted us to investigate whether C/OK virus could exist in a nonswine species. Significantly, we found that C/OK virus was widespread in U.S. bovine herds, as demonstrated by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and serological assays. Genome sequencing of three bovine viruses isolated from two herds in different states further confirmed these findings. To determine whether swine/bovine C/OK viruses can undergo reassortment with human ICV, and to clarify the taxonomic status of C/OK, in vitro reassortment and serological typing by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) were conducted. In vitro reassortment using two human ICV and two swine and bovine C/OK viruses demonstrated that human ICV and C/OK viruses were unable to reassort and produce viable progeny. Antigenically, no cross-recognition of detergent split virions was observed in AGID between human and nonhuman viruses by using polyclonal antibodies that were reactive to cognate antigens. Taken together, these results demonstrate that C/OK virus is genetically and antigenically distinct from ICV. The classification of the new virus in a separate genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family is proposed. The finding of C/OK virus in swine and bovine indicates that this new virus may spread and establish infection in other mammals, including humans.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere00031-14
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 4 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Virology


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