Chemical profile and therapeutic potentials of Xylocarpus moluccensis (Lam.) M. Roem. A literature-based review

Muhammad Torequl Islam, Javad Sharifi-Rad, Miquel Martorell, Eunus S. Ali, Muhammad Nadeem Asghar, Farha Deeba, Chelapram K. Firoz, Mohammad S. Mubarak

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Ethnopharmacological relevance: Historically, mangrove plants are among the potential sources of foods and remedies for humans living in the forests and nearby communities. Xylocarpus moluccensis (Lam.) M. Roem., an important mangrove medicinal plant, has been traditionally used for many purposes such as treatment of fever, dysentery, diarrhea, swelling, and abdominal disorders. The aim of the present work was to summarize the chemical reports and biological activities of the mangrove medicinal plant X. moluccensis based on information collected from different databases. Materials and methods: An up-to-date search (till Aug 2019) was carried out in databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and various patient offices (e.g., WIPO, CIPO, USPTO) using the keywords: ‘Xylocarpus moluccensis’, and/or paired with ‘ethnobotanical use’, and ‘phytochemical’. In vitro, ex vivo, or in vivo studies were included. Results: Findings suggest that X. moluccensis contains various important minerals and phytochemicals, where flavonoids, terpenes and terpenoids are the most prominent isolated phyto-constituents of X. moluccensis. Extracts/fractions or isolated compounds from this plant possess diverse biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, antineoplastic, anti-diarrheal, insecticidal, anti-feedant, neuropharmacological (e.g., central nervous system depressant), anti-atherosclerotic, and lipid-lowering activity. Only one report suggests that the methanol and aqueous extracts of this plant did not exert cytotoxic effects on normal mouse fibroblast cells. However, no clinical studies were reported. Conclusions: Taken all together, X. moluccensis may be one of the best sources of pharmacologically active lead compounds. More research, however, is necessary to establish the safety and efficacy, and its toxicogenetic effects in animal models.

Original languageEnglish
Article number112958
JournalJournal of Ethnopharmacology
StatePublished - Sep 15 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier B.V.


  • Ethnopharmacological use
  • Mangrove plant
  • Pharmacological activities
  • Phytochemicals
  • Phytotherapeutic tool
  • Xylocarpus moluccensis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery


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