Childhood conduct problems and other early risk factors in rural adult stimulant users

Teresa L. Kramer, Xiaotong Han, Carl Leukefeld, Brenda M. Booth, Carrie Edlund

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Context: Understanding childhood risk factors associated with adult substance use and legal problems is important for treatment and prevention. Purpose: To examine the relationship of early substance use, conduct problems before age 15, and family history of substance abuse on adult outcomes in rural, stimulant users. Methods: Adult cocaine and methamphetamine users (N = 544) in rural Arkansas and Kentucky were interviewed. Data were analyzed using both bivariate analyses and multiple logistic and log-linear regression models, with dependent variables being any substance abuse/dependence, stimulant abuse/dependence, total number of arrests since age 18 and days incarcerated since age 18. Findings: One third reported 3 or more conduct disorder problems prior to age 15; half reported initiation of substances (excluding alcohol) before age 15; and 60% reported family history of substance problems. All 3 variables were associated with adult substance abuse/dependence but only the latter two were associated with stimulant abuse/dependence. Conclusions: This study highlights early risk factors for adult substance abuse/dependence among rural stimulant users.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)50-57
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Rural Health
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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