Circulating and Eddy Current Losses in Coreless Axial Flux PM Machine Stators with PCB Windings

Yaser Chulaee, Donovin Lewis, Ali Mohammadi, Greg Heins, Dean Patterson, Dan M. Ionel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Printed circuit board (PCB) stators in coreless axial flux permanent magnet (AFPM) machines have been proposed, designed, and studied for use in multiple industries due to their design flexibility and reduction of manufacturing costs, volume, and weight compared to conventional stators. This paper investigates mechanisms and methods of approximating open circuit losses in PCB stators within example wave and spiral winding topologies for a dual rotor, single stator configuration using 3D FEA, analytical hybrid techniques and experiments. The effect of rotor magnet shape, end winding, and active conductor geometry on eddy currents is studied, and some mitigation techniques are proposed. Through stator equivalent circuit analysis, circulating current losses caused by mechanical abnormalities and magnetic circuit asymmetry are assessed. Possible strategies and schemes to minimize circulating current losses are also described. The trade-off between stator loss components and some practical design considerations are outlined in detail. The open circuit power losses of a prototype coreless AFPM motor were experimentally tested using multiple example PCB stators and emulated rotor asymmetries, with the findings being comparable to the FEA and hybrid analytical methods results.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4010-4020
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 1972-2012 IEEE.


  • Axial-flux
  • FEA
  • PCB stator
  • circulating current
  • coreless machines
  • eddy current
  • permanent-magnet machines
  • winding losses

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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