CLIC and membrane wound repair pathways enable pandemic norovirus entry and infection

B. Vijayalakshmi Ayyar, Khalil Ettayebi, Wilhelm Salmen, Umesh C. Karandikar, Frederick H. Neill, Victoria R. Tenge, Sue E. Crawford, Erhard Bieberich, B. V.Venkataram Prasad, Robert L. Atmar, Mary K. Estes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Globally, most cases of gastroenteritis are caused by pandemic GII.4 human norovirus (HuNoV) strains with no approved therapies or vaccines available. The cellular pathways that these strains exploit for cell entry and internalization are unknown. Here, using nontransformed human jejunal enteroids (HIEs) that recapitulate the physiology of the gastrointestinal tract, we show that infectious GII.4 virions and virus-like particles are endocytosed using a unique combination of endosomal acidification-dependent clathrin-independent carriers (CLIC), acid sphingomyelinase (ASM)-mediated lysosomal exocytosis, and membrane wound repair pathways. We found that besides the known interaction of the viral capsid Protruding (P) domain with host glycans, the Shell (S) domain interacts with both galectin-3 (gal-3) and apoptosis-linked gene 2-interacting protein X (ALIX), to orchestrate GII.4 cell entry. Recognition of the viral and cellular determinants regulating HuNoV entry provides insight into the infection process of a non-enveloped virus highlighting unique pathways and targets for developing effective therapeutics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1148
JournalNature Communications
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s).

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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