Clinimetric Criteria for Patient-Reported Outcome Measures

Danilo Carrozzino, Chiara Patierno, Jenny Guidi, Carmen Berrocal Montiel, Jianxin Cao, Mary E. Charlson, Kaj Sparle Christensen, John Concato, Carlos De Las Cuevas, Jose De Leon, Ajandek Eöry, Marcelo Pio Fleck, Toshi A. Furukawa, Ralph I. Horwitz, Andrew A. Nierenberg, Chiara Rafanelli, Hongxing Wang, Thomas N. Wise, Nicoletta Sonino, Giovanni A. Fava

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

80 Scopus citations


Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are self-rated scales and indices developed to improve the detection of the patients' subjective experience. Given that a considerable number of PROMs are available, it is important to evaluate their validity and usefulness in a specific research or clinical setting. Published guidelines, based on psychometric criteria, do not fit in with the complexity of clinical challenges, because of their quest for homogeneity of components and inadequate attention to sensitivity. Psychometric theory has stifled the field and led to the routine use of scales widely accepted yet with a history of poor performance. Clinimetrics, the science of clinical measurements, may provide a more suitable conceptual and methodological framework. The aims of this paper are to outline the major limitations of the psychometric model and to provide criteria for clinimetric patient-reported outcome measures (CLIPROMs). The characteristics related to reliability, sensitivity, validity, and clinical utility of instruments are critically reviewed, with particular reference to the differences between clinimetric and psychometric approaches. Of note is the fact that PROMs, rating scales, and indices developed according to psychometric criteria may display relevant clinimetric properties. The present paper underpins the importance of the clini-metric methodology in choosing the appropriate PROMs. CLIPROM criteria may also guide the development of new indices and the validation of existing PROMs to be employed in clinical settings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)222-232
Number of pages11
JournalPsychotherapy and Psychosomatics
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 S. Karger AG, Basel.


  • Assessment
  • Clinimetrics
  • Criteria
  • Indices
  • Patientreported outcome measures
  • Psychometrics
  • Rating scales
  • Sensitivity
  • Validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Applied Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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