The viral replication proteins of plus-stranded RNA viruses orchestrate the biogenesis of the large viral replication compartments, including the numerous viral replicase complexes, which represent the sites of viral RNA replication. The formation and operation of these virus-driven structures require subversion of numerous cellular proteins, membrane deformation, membrane proliferation, changes in lipid composition of the hijacked cellular membranes and intensive viral RNA synthesis. These virus-driven processes require plentiful ATP and molecular building blocks produced at the sites of replication or delivered there. To obtain the necessary resources from the infected cells, tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) rewires cellular metabolic pathways by co-opting aerobic glycolytic enzymes to produce ATP molecules within the replication compartment and enhance virus production. However, aerobic glycolysis requires the replenishing of the NAD+ pool. In this paper, we demonstrate the efficient recruitment of pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc1) and alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh1) fermentation enzymes into the viral replication compartment. Depletion of Pdc1 in combination with deletion of the homologous PDC5 in yeast or knockdown of Pdc1 and Adh1 in plants reduced the efficiency of tombusvirus replication. Complementation approach revealed that the enzymatically functional Pdc1 is required to support tombusvirus replication. Measurements with an ATP biosensor revealed that both Pdc1 and Adh1 enzymes are required for efficient generation of ATP within the viral replication compartment. In vitro reconstitution experiments with the viral replicase show the pro-viral function of Pdc1 during the assembly of the viral replicase and the activation of the viral p92 RdRp, both of which require the co-opted ATP-driven Hsp70 protein chaperone. We propose that compartmentalization of the co-opted fermentation pathway in the tombusviral replication compartment benefits the virus by allowing for the rapid production of ATP locally, including replenishing of the regulatory NAD+ pool by the fermentation pathway. The compartmentalized production of NAD+ and ATP facilitates their efficient use by the co-opted ATP-dependent host factors to support robust tombusvirus replication. We propose that compartmentalization of the fermentation pathway gives an evolutionary advantage for tombusviruses to replicate rapidly to speed ahead of antiviral responses of the hosts and to outcompete other pathogenic viruses. We also show the dependence of turnip crinkle virus, bamboo mosaic virus, tobacco mosaic virus and the insect-infecting Flock House virus on the fermentation pathway, suggesting that a broad range of viruses might induce this pathway to support rapid replication.
|State||Published - 2019|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (grant#: MCB1517751 to PDN). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
© 2019 Lin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology