Cobalt use and regulation in horseracing: A review

K. Brewer, G. A. Maylin, C. K. Fenger, T. Tobin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Cobalt, atomic weight 58.9, is a metallic element and environmental substance found in the animal in microgram quantities, predominantly as vitamin B12, but is also a component of at least one mammalian enzyme unassociated with B12. Cobalt is a required trace mineral and has long been administered as a dietary supplement to humans and animals. Cobalt deficiency outside of its requirement in vitamin B12 has not been reported in humans. The administration of cobalt salts was once standard treatment for anaemia in humans, owing to its ability to stimulate red blood cell synthesis. Elemental cobalt acts by stabilising hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α), which activates the erythropoietin gene, which in turn increases haemoglobin/red blood cell synthesis, which had led to a presumption that cobalt may be performance enhancing in athletes. Administration of cobalt in amounts sufficient to significantly increase the haematocrit are associated with risk of toxicity in humans, and the only cobalt administration study in horses showed no effect on red blood cell parameters or toxicity. Because of the perception that cobalt administration may enhance athletic performance, racing regulators have recently begun to restrict cobalt use in horseracing which has led to the introduction of cobalt thresholds in several racing jurisdictions. The International Federation of Horseracing Authorities is considering an international regulatory threshold for cobalt of 100 ng/ml in urine, based on studies performed in five different countries. In the United States, the Racing Commissioners International has recently set a primary plasma threshold of 25 ng/ml and secondary threshold of 50 ng/ml. One New York and New Jersey racetrack owner has initiated testing for cobalt and has denied his facilities to trainers whose horses tested positive for excessive quantities of cobalt. This review seeks to summarise what is known about the use of cobalt in horse racing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalComparative Exercise Physiology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2016


  • Cobalt
  • HIF-1α
  • Horseracing
  • Vitamin B12

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biochemistry
  • Physiology
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Veterinary (miscellaneous)
  • Physiology (medical)


Dive into the research topics of 'Cobalt use and regulation in horseracing: A review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this