State dependent learning effects have been widely studied in a variety of drugs of abuse. However, they have yet to be studied in relation to sexual motivation. The current study investigated state-dependent learning effects of cocaine in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) using a sexual conditioning paradigm. Cocaine-induced state-dependent learning effects were investigated using a 2. ×. 2 factorial design with training state as one factor and test state as the other factor. During a 14-day training phase, male quail were injected once daily with 10. mg/kg cocaine or saline and then placed in a test chamber after 15. min. In the test chamber, sexual conditioning trials consisted of presentation of a light conditioned stimulus (CS) followed by sexual reinforcement. During the state dependent test, half of the birds received a shift in drug state from training to testing (Coc. →. Sal or Sal. →. Coc) while the other half remained in the same drug state (Coc. →. Coc or Sal. →. Sal). Results showed that male quail that were trained and tested in the same state (Coc. →. Coc or Sal. →. Sal) showed greater sexual conditioning than male quail that were trained and tested in different states (Sal. →. Coc) except when cocaine was administered chronically prior to the test (Coc. →. Sal). For the latter condition, sexual conditioning persisted from cocaine training to the saline test. The findings suggest that state dependent effects may alter sexual motivation and that repeated exposure to cocaine during sexual activity may increase sexual motivation which, in turn, may lead to high risk sexual activities. An alternative explanation for the findings is also discussed.
|Number of pages||4|
|Journal||Physiology and Behavior|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2015|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Financial support for this research was provided by NIDA grant #DA022451 awarded to CKA. The authors would like to thank Luke Cornett and B. Levi Bolin for their help with data collection, animal care, and technical support. We would also like to thank reviewers for their helpful comments on the manuscript.
© 2014 Published by Elsevier Inc.
- Japanese quail
- Pavlovian conditioning
- Sexual behavior
- State-dependent learning
- State-dependent memory
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
- Behavioral Neuroscience