Cocirculation of two distinct genetic and antigenic lineages of proposed influenza D virus in cattle

Emily A. Collin, Zizhang Sheng, Yuekun Lang, Wenjun Ma, Ben M. Hause, Feng Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

121 Scopus citations


Viruses with approximately 50% homology to human influenza C virus (ICV) have recently been isolated from swine and cattle. The overall low homology to ICV, lack of antibody cross-reactivity to ICV in hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and agar gel immunodiffusion assays, and inability to productively reassort with ICV led to the proposal that these viruses represented a new genus of influenza virus, influenzavirus D (IDV). To further our understanding of the epidemiology of IDV, real-time reverse transcription-PCR was performed on a set of 208 samples from bovines with respiratory disease. Ten samples (4.8%) were positive and six viruses were successfully isolated in vitro. Phylogenetic analysis of full-genome sequences of these six new viruses and four previously reported viruses revealed two distinct cocirculating lineages represented by D/swine/Oklahoma/1334/2011 (D/OK) and D/bovine/Oklahoma/660/2013 (D/660), which frequently reassorted with one another. Antigenic analysis using the HI assay and lineage-representative D/OK and D/660 antiserum found up to an approximate 10-fold loss in cross-reactivity against heterologous clade antiserum. One isolate, D/bovine/Texas/3-13/2011 (D/3-13), clustered with the D/660 lineage, but also had high HI titers to heterologous (D/OK) clade antiserum. Molecular modeling of the hemagglutinin esterase fusion protein of D/3-13 identified a mutation at position 212 as a possible antigenic determinant responsible for the discrepant HI results. These results suggest that IDV is common in bovines with respiratory disease and that at least two genetic and antigenically distinct clades cocirculate.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1036-1042
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Virology
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015, American Society for Microbiology.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Insect Science
  • Virology


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