Commonalities and differences in correlates of depressive symptoms in men and women with heart failure

Jo Ann Eastwood, Debra K. Moser, Barbara J. Riegel, Nancy M. Albert, Susan Pressler, Misook L. Chung, Sandra Dunbar, Jia Rong Wu, Terry A. Lennie

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


Objective: (i) To compare the prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms between men and women enrolled in a large heart failure (HF) registry. (ii) To determine gender differences in predictors of depressive symptoms from demographic, behavioral, clinical, and psychosocial factors in HF patients. Methods: In 622 HF patients (70% male, 61 ± 13 years, 59% NYHA class III/IV), depressive symptoms were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Potential correlates were age, ethnicity, education, marital and financial status, smoking, exercise, body mass index (BMI), HF etiology, NYHA class, comorbidities, functional capacity, anxiety, and perceived control. To identify gender-specific correlates of depressive symptoms, separate logistic regression models were built by gender. Results: Correlates of depressive symptoms in men were financial status (p = 0.027), NYHA (p = 0.001); functional capacity (p < 0.001); health perception (p = 0.043); perceived control (p = 0.002) and anxiety (p < 0.001). Correlates of depressive symptoms in women were BMI (p = 0.003); perceived control (p = 0.013) and anxiety (p < 0.001). Conclusions: In HF patients, lowering depressive symptoms may require gender-specific interventions focusing on weight management in women and improving perceived functional capacity in men. Both men and women with HF may benefit from anxiety reduction and increased control.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)356-365
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2012

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The project described was supported by grant numbers R01 NR008567 and R01 NR009280 from NIH, the National Institute of Nursing Research, and by a Center grant, 1P20NR010679 from NIH, National Institute of Nursing Research. It was also supported by NRSA Clinical Scholars Training in Cardiovascular Science (grant number: T32HL091812). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institute of Nursing Research or the National Institutes of Health.


  • Depression
  • Gender
  • Heart failure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Medical–Surgical
  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing


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