Compact z=2 electrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions: Confinement with gapless modes

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16 Scopus citations


We consider 2+1-dimensional compact U(1) gauge theory at the Lifshitz point with a dynamical critical exponent z=2. As in the usual z=1 theory, monopoles proliferate the vacuum for any value of the coupling, generating a mass scale. The theory of the dilute monopole gas is written in terms of a non-relativistic sine-Gordon model with two real fields. While monopoles remove some of the massless poles of the perturbative field strength propagator, a gapless mode representing the incomplete screening of monopoles remains, and is protected by a shift invariance of the original theory. Timelike Wilson loops still obey area laws, implying that minimal charges are confined, but the action of spacelike Wilson loops of linear size L goes instead as L3.

Original languageEnglish
Article number181601
JournalPhysical Review Letters
Issue number18
StatePublished - May 5 2010

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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