Comparing Paper and Tablet Modalities of Math Assessment for Multiplication and Addition

Kathleen B. Aspiranti, Erin E.C. Henze, Jennifer L. Reynolds

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) tools are increasingly administered through technology-based modalities such as computers and tablets. Two studies were conducted to examine whether students perform similarly on paper-based and tablet-based math fact probes. Ten students completed 1-min addition or multiplication math probes using a single-case multielement design. Students completed the probes using traditional paper and pencil, a tablet using a stylus to write the answer, or a tablet application using a keyboard to type the answer. Visual analysis of time series graphs showed that the majority of students performed better on the paper-based probes than on either the keyboard or stylus probes. Nonoverlap of all pairs (NAP) effect size measures indicated medium to large differences between paper and stylus probes and paper and keyboard probes but weak effects between stylus and keyboard probes. Discussion focuses on the implications for educators and the use of different CBM modalities for interindividual and intraindividual comparisons.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)453-465
Number of pages13
JournalSchool Psychology Review
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 National Association of School Psychologists.


  • assessments
  • curriculum-based measurement
  • math
  • single-case design
  • tablet

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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