Comparison and Design Optimization of a Five-Phase Flux-Switching PM Machine for In-Wheel Traction Applications

Hao Chen, Xiangdong Liu, Ayman M. El-Refaie, Jing Zhao, Nabeel A.O. Demerdash, Jiangbiao He

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


A comparative study of five-phase outer-rotor flux-switching permanent magnet (FSPM) machines with different topologies for in-wheel traction applications is presented in this paper. Those topologies include double-layer winding, single-layer winding, C-core, and E-core configurations. The electromagnetic performance in the low-speed region, the flux-weakening capability in the high-speed region, and the fault-tolerance capability are all investigated in detail. The results indicate that the E-core FSPM machine has performance advantages. Furthermore, two kinds of E-core FSPM machines with different stator and rotor pole combinations are optimized, respectively. In order to reduce the computational burden during the large-scale optimization process, a mathematical technique is developed based on the concept of computationally efficient finite-element analysis. While a differential evolution algorithm serves as a global search engine to target optimized designs. Subsequently, multiobjective tradeoffs are presented based on a Pareto-set for 20 000 candidate designs. Finally, an optimal design is prototyped, and some experimental results are given to confirm the validity of the simulation results in this paper.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8733854
Pages (from-to)1805-1817
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
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  • Computationally efficient finite-element analysis
  • design optimization
  • flux-switching
  • in-wheel traction motors
  • permanent magnet (PM) machine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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