Comparison of the ankle, knee, hip, and trunk corrective action shown during single-leg stance on firm, foam, and multiaxial surfaces

Bryan L. Riemann, Joseph B. Myers, Scott M. Lephart

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

124 Scopus citations


Objective: To compare the quantity of ankle, knee, hip, and trunk corrective actions shown during single-leg stance. Design: Counter-balanced crossover design. Single-leg stance under the conditions of eyes open on firm, foam, and multiaxial surfaces and eyes closed on a firm surface were recorded for 12 seconds in 18 participants. Setting: A university neuromuscular research laboratory. Participants: Eighteen healthy and recreationally active college students. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure: Average angular displacement magnitude between successive sampling instances for the ankle, knee, hip, and trunk. Results: A significant condition by joint interaction was revealed. Post hoc comparisons revealed that the ankle dominated as the source of corrective action across each of the testing conditions. As the challenge became greater because of foam surface or eyes closed, more corrective action occurred at proximal joints (hip and/or knee). Conclusions: The ankle is of primary importance during single-leg stance on firm, foam, and multiaxial surfaces, with proximal joints having an increased role under more challenging conditions. These results provide a scientific basis for clinicians' and researchers' decisions about support surface and visual condition during single-leg postural control testing and training.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)90-95
Number of pages6
JournalArchives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2003

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
From the Department of Health and Kinesiology, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA (Riemann); Department of Kinesiology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (Myers); and Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (Lephart). Supported by the Eastern Athletic Trainers Association. Presented in part at the American College of Sports Medicine’s 47th Annual Meeting, May 31, 2000, Indianapolis, IN. No commercial party having a direct financial interest in the results of the research supporting this article has or will confer a benefit upon the authors or upon any organization with which the authors are associated. Reprint requests to Bryan Riemann, PhD, ATC, Georgia Southern University, PO Box 8076, Statesboro, GA 30460-9076, e-mail: [email protected]. 0003-9993/03/8401-7214$35.00/0 doi:10.1053/apmr.2003.50004


  • Biomechanics
  • Equilibrium
  • Kinematics
  • Posture
  • Rehabilitation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation


Dive into the research topics of 'Comparison of the ankle, knee, hip, and trunk corrective action shown during single-leg stance on firm, foam, and multiaxial surfaces'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this