Competitive dynamics of energy, environment, and economy in the U.S.

Hsiao Tien Pao, Haipeng Allan Chen, Yi Ying Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

60 Scopus citations


This paper applies the Lotka-Volterra model to investigate the competitive interactions among energy, environment, and economy (3. Es) in the U.S. The proposed LV-COMSUD (Lotka-Volterra COmpetition Model for SUstainable Development) has satisfactory performance for model fitting and provides a useful multivariate framework to predict outcomes concerning these interactions. Our key findings include a pure competition between emissions and GDP (Gross Domestic Product), neutralisms between renewable and fossil/nuclear energy, and commensalisms between GDP and renewable/fossil energy and between nuclear energy and fossil energy/emissions. These results indicate that renewable/fossil energy use contributes to GDP and interacts indirectly with emissions, that an environmental Kuznets curve exists, and that the amount of produced nuclear energy correlates with emission. The U.S. is dependent on non-clean energy sources and its energy efficiency has room for improvement. The results provide unique insights for policy makers to craft up sustainable economic development plans. Overall, it is suggested that for developed markets such as the U.S., to enhance energy security and mitigate climate changes, improving energy efficiency and developing low-carbon clean energy should be top priorities.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7783
Pages (from-to)449-460
Number of pages12
StatePublished - Sep 1 2015

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors are very grateful to two anonymous referees whose constructive comments and suggestions have helped to greatly improve the quality of the paper. We thank the Ministry of Science and Technology (Taiwan) for financial support. The Grant No. is NSC 102-2410-H-009-044-MY3 .

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


  • Competitive interaction
  • Energy-environment-economy (3Es)
  • Lotka-Volterra model
  • Sustainable development
  • U.S.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Pollution
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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