Computing Mathematical Functions using DNA via Fractional Coding

Sayed Ahmad Salehi, Xingyi Liu, Marc D. Riedel, Keshab K. Parhi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


This paper discusses the implementation of mathematical functions such as exponentials, trigonometric functions, the sigmoid function and the perceptron function with molecular reactions in general, and DNA strand displacement reactions in particular. The molecular constructs for these functions are predicated on a novel representation for input and output values: a fractional encoding, in which values are represented by the relative concentrations of two molecular types, denoted as type-1 and type-0. This representation is inspired by a technique from digital electronic design, termed stochastic logic, in which values are represented by the probability of 1's in a stream of randomly generated 0's and 1's. Research in the electronic realm has shown that a variety of complex functions can be computed with remarkably simple circuitry with this stochastic approach. This paper demonstrates how stochastic electronic designs can be translated to molecular circuits. It presents molecular implementations of mathematical functions that are considerably more complex than any shown to date. All designs are validated using mass-action simulations of the chemical kinetics of DNA strand displacement reactions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8312
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 1 2018

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Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 The Author(s).

ASJC Scopus subject areas

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