Conditioned place preference and aversion for music in a virtual reality environment

Mikaël Molet, Gauthier Billiet, Michael T. Bardo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


The use of a virtual reality environment (VRE) enables behavioral scientists to create different spatial contexts in which human participants behave freely, while still confined to the laboratory. In this article, VRE was used to study conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion (CPA). In Experiment 1, half of the participants were asked to visit a house for 2. min with consonant music and then they were asked to visit an alternate house with static noise for 2. min, whereas the remaining participants did the visits in reverse order. In Experiment 2, we used the same design as Experiment 1, except for replacing consonant music with dissonant music. After conditioning in both experiments, the participants were given a choice between spending time in the two houses. In Experiment 1, participants spent more time in the house associated with the consonant music, thus showing a CPP toward that house. In Experiment 2, participants spent less time in the house associated with the dissonant music, thus showing a CPA for that house. These results support VRE as a tool to extend research on CPP/CPA in humans.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31-35
Number of pages5
JournalBehavioural Processes
StatePublished - Jan 2013

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
M.T.B. was supported by NIH grant P50 DA05312 .


  • Aversion
  • Conditioned place preference
  • Music
  • Virtual reality environment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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