Conditioned place preference using opiate and stimulant drugs: A meta-analysis

M. T. Bardo, J. K. Rowlett, M. J. Harris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

379 Scopus citations


A meta-analysis was conducted on the data obtained from published articles that have used the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm to assess the rewarding effects of morphine, heroin, amphetamine and cocaine in rats. Using a histogram analysis of the data, significant dose-effect curves were evident with all of the drugs examined, except for cocaine. Analysis of the data also revealed that several methodological variables moderated the effect size for CPP, at least with some of the drugs examined. In particular, the following methodological variables significantly moderated CPP effect size: strain of rat used; housing condition (single or group cages); type of apparatus (2 or 3 compartments); preconditioning test (present or absent); route of drug administration; intervening saline trials (present or absent); conditioning trial duration; and drug compartment (nonpreferred, counterbalanced or white). No significant effect size differences were evident using, sex, number of drug trials, or test duration as moderator variables in the analyses. These meta-analytic results may be useful to investigators for maximizing the effect size of drug-induced CPP.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)39-51
Number of pages13
JournalNeuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1995

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank J. L. Neisewander for helpful criticisms on an earlier version of this manuscript. This research was supported by USPHS grants DA-05312 and DA-06924.


  • Amphetamine
  • Cocaine
  • Conditioned place preference
  • Drug reward
  • Heroin
  • Meta-analysis
  • Morphine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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