Background: The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2, has become the most devastating public health emergency in the 21st century and one of the most influential plagues in history. Studies on the origin of SARS-CoV-2 have generally agreed that the virus probably comes from bat, closely related to a bat CoV named BCoV-RaTG13 taken from horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus affinis), with Malayan pangolin (Manis javanica) being a plausible intermediate host. However, due to the relatively low number of SARS-CoV-2-related strains available in public domain, the evolutionary history remains unclear. Methodology: Nine hundred ninety-five coronavirus sequences from NCBI Genbank and GISAID were obtained and multiple sequence alignment was carried out to categorize SARS-CoV-2 related groups. Spike sequences were analyzed using similarity analysis and conservation analyses. Mutation analysis was used to identify variations within receptor-binding domain (RBD) in spike for SARS-CoV-2-related strains. Results: We identified a family of SARS-CoV-2-related strains, including the closest relatives, bat CoV RaTG13 and pangolin CoV strains. Sequence similarity analysis and conservation analysis on spike sequence identified that N-terminal domain, RBD and S2 subunit display different degrees of conservation with several coronavirus strains. Mutation analysis on contact sites in SARS-CoV-2 RBD reveals that human-susceptibility probably emerges in pangolin. Conclusion and implication: We conclude that the spike sequence of SARS-CoV-2 is the result of multiple recombination events during its transmission from bat to human, and we propose a framework of evolutionary history that resolve the relationship of BCoV-RaTG13 and pangolin coronaviruses with SARS-CoV-2. Lay Summary: This study analyses whole-genome and spike sequences of coronavirus from NCBI using phylogenetic and conservation analyses to reconstruct the evolutionary history of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 and proposes an evolutionary history of spike in the progenitors of SARS-CoV-2 from bat to human through mammal hosts before they recombine into the current form.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was funded by the Science and Technology Development Fund, Macau SAR (File no. 0004/2019/AFJ and 0011/2019/AKP) and by the University of Macau (grant numbers: FHS-CRDA-029-002-2017 and MYRG2018-00071-FHS).
© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- Bat coronavirus RaTG13
- Conservation analysis
- Pangolin coronavirus
- Receptor-binding domain
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis