Control of 3D weld pool surface

Yu Kang Liu, Yu Ming Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

101 Scopus citations


The 3D weld pool surface in gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) is characterized by its width, length, convexity and measured in real-time using an innovative machine vision system. The dynamic response of these characteristic parameters to welding current and speed as control variables is modeled. Based on the identified dynamic model, a predictive control algorithm is developed to control these characteristic parameters. The proposed algorithm is given in a closed form and no online optimization is required. Welding experiments confirm that the developed control system is effective in achieving the desired 3D weld pool surface geometry despite various disturbances.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1469-1480
Number of pages12
JournalControl Engineering Practice
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2013

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work is funded by the National Science Foundation under Grant CMMI-0927707 and IIS-1208420 . Y.K. Liu would like to thank W.J. Zhang at the Welding Research Laboratory, University of Kentucky, for his help in conducting welding experiments.


  • 3D
  • GTAW
  • Machine vision
  • Predictive control
  • Weld pool geometry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Applied Mathematics


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