Controlled layer-by-layer immobilization of horseradish peroxidase

Srivatsa V. Rao, Kimberly W. Anderson, Leonidas G. Bachas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

85 Scopus citations


Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was biotinylated with biotinamidocaproate N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (BcapNHS) in a controlled manner to obtain biotinylated horseradish peroxidase (Bcap-HRP) with two biotin moieties per enzyme molecule. Avidin-mediated immobilization of HRP was achieved by first coupling avidin on carboxy-derivatized polystyrene beads using a carbodiimide, followed by the attachment of the disubstituted biotinylated horseradish peroxidase from one of the two biotin moieties through the avidin-biotin interaction (controlled immobilization). Another layer of avidin can be attached to the second biotin on Bcap-HRP, which can serve as a protein linker with additional Bcap-HRP, leading to a layer-by-layer protein assembly of the enzyme. Horseradish peroxidase was also immobilized directly on carboxy-derivatized polystyrene beads by carbodiimide chemistry (conventional method). The reaction kinetics of the native horseradish peroxidase, immobilized horseradish peroxidase (conventional method), controlled immobilized biotinylated horseradish peroxidase on avidin-coated beads, and biotinylated horseradish peroxidase crosslinked to avidin-coated polystyrene beads were all compared. It was observed that in solution the biotinylated horseradish peroxidase retained 81% of the unconjugated enzyme's activity. Also, in solution, horseradish peroxidase and Bcap-HRP were inhibited by high concentrations of the substrate hydrogen peroxide. The controlled immobilized horseradish peroxidase could tolerate much higher concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and, thus, it demonstrates reduced substrate inhibition. Because of this, the activity of controlled immobilized horseradish peroxidase was higher than the activity of Bcap-HRP in solution. It is shown that a layer-by-layer assembly of the immobilized enzyme yields HRP of higher activity per unit surface area of the immobilization support compared to conventionally immobilized enzyme.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)389-396
Number of pages8
JournalBiotechnology and Bioengineering
Issue number4
StatePublished - Nov 20 1999


  • Avidin
  • Biotin
  • Horseradish peroxidase
  • Immobilization
  • Layer-by-layer assembly
  • Substrate inhibition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology


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