Correlation between Alzheimer’s disease and type 2 diabetes using non-negative matrix factorization

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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a complex and heterogeneous disease that can be affected by various genetic factors. Although the cause of AD is not yet known and there is no treatment to cure this disease, its progression can be delayed. AD has recently been recognized as a brain-specific type of diabetes called type 3 diabetes. Several studies have shown that people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have a higher risk of developing AD. Therefore, it is important to identify subgroups of patients with AD that may be more likely to be associated with T2D. We here describe a new approach to identify the correlation between AD and T2D at the genetic level. Subgroups of AD and T2D were each generated using a non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) approach, which generated clusters containing subsets of genes and samples. In the gene cluster that was generated by conventional gene clustering method from NMF, we selected genes with significant differences in the corresponding sample cluster by Kruskal–Wallis and Dunn-test. Subsequently, we extracted differentially expressed gene (DEG) subgroups, and candidate genes with the same regulation direction can be extracted at the intersection of two disease DEG subgroups. Finally, we identified 241 candidate genes that represent common features related to both AD and T2D, and based on pathway analysis we propose that these genes play a role in the common pathological features of AD and T2D. Moreover, in the prediction of AD using logistic regression analysis with an independent AD dataset, the candidate genes obtained better prediction performance than DEGs. In conclusion, our study revealed a subgroup of patients with AD that are associated with T2D and candidate genes associated between AD and T2D, which can help in providing personalized and suitable treatments.

Original languageEnglish
Article number15265
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Data used in the preparation of this article were obtained from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database ( As such, the investigators within the ADNI contributed to the design and implementation of ADNI and/or provided data but did not participate in analysis or writing of this report. A complete listing of ADNI investigators can be found Data collection and sharing for this project was funded by the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) (National Institutes of Health Grant U01 AG024904) and DOD ADNI (Department of Defense award number W81XWH-12-2-0012). ADNI is funded by the National Institute on Aging, the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, and through generous contributions from the following: Alzheimer’s Association; Alzheimer’s Drug Discovery Foundation; BioClinica, Inc.; Biogen Idec Inc.; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company; Eisai Inc.; Elan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; Eli Lilly and Company; F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd and its affiliated company Genentech, Inc.; GE Healthcare; Innogenet-ics, N.V.; IXICO Ltd.; Janssen Alzheimer Immunotherapy Research & Development, LLC.; Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development LLC.; Medpace, Inc.; Merck & Co., Inc.; Meso Scale Diagnostics, LLC.; NeuroRx Research; Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation; Pfzer Inc.; Piramal Imaging; Servier; Synarc Inc.; and Takeda Pharmaceutical Company. Te Canadian Institutes of Health Research is providing funds to support ADNI clinical sites in Canada. Private sector contributions are facilitated by the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health ( Te grantee organization is the Northern California Institute for Research and Education, and the study is coordinated by the Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study at the University of California, San Diego. ADNI data are disseminated by the Laboratory for Neuro Imaging at the University of Southern California. Samples from the National Cell Repository for AD (NCRAD), which receives government support under a cooperative agreement grant (U24 AG21886) awarded by the National Institute on Aging (AIG), were used in this study. Additional support for data analysis was provided by NLM R01 LM012535, NIA R03 AG054936, and the Pennsylvania Department of Health (#SAP 4100070267). The Department specifically disclaims responsibility for any analyses, interpretations or conclusions.

Funding Information:
This work has been supported by the Bio & Medical Technology Development Program of NRF funded by the Korean government (MSIT) (NRF-2018M3C7A1054935) and a grant of the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), funded by the Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (Grant Number: HI18C0460).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s).

ASJC Scopus subject areas

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