Critical infrastructure protection: Requirements and challenges for the 21st century

Cristina Alcaraz, Sherali Zeadally

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

197 Scopus citations


Critical infrastructures play a vital role in supporting modern society. The reliability, performance, continuous operation, safety, maintenance and protection of critical infrastructures are national priorities for countries around the world. This paper explores the vulnerabilities and threats facing modern critical infrastructures with special emphasis on industrial control systems, and describes a number of protection measures. The paper also discusses some of the challenging areas related to critical infrastructure protection such as governance and security management, secure network architectures, self-healing, modeling and simulation, wide-area situational awareness, forensics and learning, and trust management and privacy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)53-66
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014 Elsevier B.V.


  • Challenges
  • Critical infrastructure protection
  • Requirements
  • Risk
  • SCADA systems
  • Security

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Modeling and Simulation
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Information Systems and Management


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