Cross-sectional associations of impaired glucose metabolism measures with bleeding on probing and periodontitis

Cynthia M. Pérez, Francisco Muñoz, Oelisoa M. Andriankaja, Christine S. Ritchie, Sasha Martínez, José Vergara, José Vivaldi, Lydia López, Maribel Campos, Kaumudi J. Joshipura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Aim: This study assessed the associations of pre-diabetes and insulin resistance with bleeding on probing (BOP) and periodontitis among adults. Materials and methods: We included 1191 Hispanic adults aged 40–65 years, free of diabetes, enrolled in San Juan Overweight Adults Longitudinal Study. Pre-diabetes was defined as impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or impaired glycated haemoglobin. Impaired one-hour plasma glucose (1hPG) was defined as levels >155 mg/dl. Insulin resistance was defined using the study population-specific 75th percentile (HOMA-IR ≥ 3.13). High BOP was defined as percentage of teeth with bleeding ≥30%. Periodontitis was defined according to the CDC/AAP definition. Results: After multivariable adjustment for age, gender, education, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, obesity, HDL-C, and plaque index, pre-diabetes with and without 1hPG, IFG, impaired 1hPG, IGT, and HOMA-IR were significantly associated with high BOP; pre-diabetes, IFG, and impaired 1hPG were significantly associated with severe periodontitis. Most of these associations remained significant when the analyses were restricted to non-smokers. Conclusions: This study suggests associations between pre-diabetes and insulin resistance with BOP and periodontitis. Given the high prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism and periodontitis, the assessment of the temporal sequence of these associations is of utmost importance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)142-149
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Clinical Periodontology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2017

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We would like to acknowledge the SOALS team (Dr. Frank Hu, Dr. Bruce Dye, Dr. Enrique Santiago, Lillian Colón, Helson Lasanta, Tania Ginebra, Hilda Torres, and Elaine Rodríguez) and the Puerto Rico Clinical and Translational Research Consortium laboratory personnel (Nilda González and Aracelis Arroyo) for their help during the study.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd


  • bleeding on probing
  • impaired fasting glucose
  • impaired glucose tolerance
  • impaired glycated haemoglobin
  • insulin resistance
  • periodontitis
  • pre-diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Periodontics


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