Current applications of gluten-free grains–a review

Joseph S. Woomer, Akinbode A. Adedeji

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

36 Citations (SciVal)


The population of Americans suffering from celiac, gluten intolerance, and wheat allergy is 1 in every 14 people. Also, many are choosing gluten-free (GF) diets nowadays because of the perception that it is a healthier option for them. Therefore, in the last decade, the GF market in the US and all over the world has seen significant growth. Globally, GF product sales reached 4.63 billion USD in 2017, and are expected to reach 6.47 billion USD by 2023, a projected compound annual growth rate of 7.6%. Several grains like millet, corn, sorghum, and pseudocereals like amaranth, quinoa, and teff are the main ingredients for a gluten diet. Though most of them have a comparable nutrient profile as common grains, the main challenge to their acceptability is the quality departure from gluten-containing counterparts and imbalance nutrients that ensue when food processing aids like starch, gums, and enzymes are used. In this review, we profiled some of the common grains, their characteristics, functionality and the various food types they are used for. We also reviewed the impact of some of the current food processing aids like starch, hydrocolloids used for improving functionality, and processing techniques like extrusion suitable for making remarkable GF foods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14-24
Number of pages11
JournalCritical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


  • Bread
  • gluten-free
  • grain
  • hydrocolloids
  • pasta
  • starch

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Current applications of gluten-free grains–a review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this