Current Practices in Hepatic Artery Infusion (HAI) Chemotherapy: An International Survey of the HAI Consortium Research Network

Sean J. Judge, Tara Ghalambor, Michael J. Cavnar, Michael E. Lidsky, Ryan P. Merkow, May Cho, Ismael Dominguez-Rosado, Paul J. Karanicolas, Skye C. Mayo, Flavio G. Rocha, Ryan C. Fields, Reema A. Patel, Hagen F. Kennecke, Bas Groot Koerkamp, Adam C. Yopp, Henrik Petrowsky, Devalingham Mahalingam, Nancy Kemeny, Michael D’Angelica, Sepideh Gholami

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: An increasing number of hepatic artery infusion (HAI) programs have been established worldwide. Practice patterns for this complex therapy across these programs have not been reported. This survey aimed to identify current practice patterns in HAI therapy with the long-term goal of defining best practices and performing prospective studies. Methods: Using SurveyMonkeyTM, a 28-question survey assessing current practices in HAI was developed by 12 HAI Consortium Research Network (HCRN) surgical oncologists. Content analysis was used to code textual responses, and the frequency of categories was calculated. Scores for rank-order questions were generated by calculating average ranking for each answer choice. Results: Thirty-six (72%) HCRN members responded to the survey. The most common intended initial indications for HAI at new programs were unresectable colorectal liver metastases (uCRLM; 100%) and unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (uIHC; 56%). Practice patterns evolved such that uCRLM (94%) and adjuvant therapy for CRLM (adjCRLM; 72%) have become the most common current indications for HAI at established centers. Referral patterns for pump placement differed between uCRLM and uIHC, with most patients referred while receiving second- and first-line therapy, respectively, with physicians preferring to evaluate patients for HAI while receiving first-line therapy for CRLM. Concern for extrahepatic disease was ranked as the most important factor when considering a patient for HAI. Conclusions: Indication and patient selection factors for HAI therapy are relatively uniform across most HCRN centers. The increasing use of adjuvant HAI therapy and overall consistency of practice patterns among HCRN centers provides a robust environment for prospective data collection and randomized clinical trials.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7362-7370
Number of pages9
JournalAnnals of Surgical Oncology
Issue number12
StatePublished - Nov 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, Society of Surgical Oncology.


  • Cholangiocarcinoma
  • Colorectal liver metastases (CRLM)
  • Hepatic artery infusion
  • Pump
  • Regional therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Oncology


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