Cybersecurity for Industrial IoT (IIoT): Threats, countermeasures, challenges and future directions

Sri Harsha Mekala, Zubair Baig, Adnan Anwar, Sherali Zeadally

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


IIoT is evolving as the future of system and process integration across Operations Technology (OT) and Information Technology (IT). The dynamic nature of OT and IT across diverse industrial sectors has led to the emergence of evolving threats which are challenging to address. We present a holistic analysis of the IIoT paradigm, identifying specific domains of IIoT adoption, assessing threats and vulnerabilities, and providing a detailed analysis of existing countermeasures. We also identify future research directions in IIoT cybersecurity to address future threats and vulnerabilities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)294-320
Number of pages27
JournalComputer Communications
StatePublished - Aug 1 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments which helped us improve the organization, clarity, content, and presentation of this paper.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier B.V.


  • Cloud computing
  • Edge computing
  • Forensics
  • Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)
  • Information Control Systems (CPSs)
  • Information Technology (IT)
  • Operational Technology (OT)
  • Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)
  • Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)
  • Threats
  • Vulnerabilities

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Networks and Communications


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