Deep and intermediate complex morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of Ferula gummosa (Apiaceae)

Sanaz Zardari, Farshid Ghaderi-Far, Hamid R. Sadeghipour, Ebrahim Zeinali, Elias Soltani, Carol C. Baskin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


We tested the hypothesis that seeds of the monocarpic perennial Ferula gummosa from the Mediterranean area and central Asia have deep complex morphophysiological dormancy. We determined the water permeability of seeds, embryo morphology, temperature requirements for embryo growth and seed germination and responses of seeds to warm and cold stratification and to different concentrations of GA3. The embryo has differentiated organs, but it is small (underdeveloped) and must grow inside the seed, reaching a critical embryo length, seed length ratio of 0.65–0.7, before the seed can germinate. Seeds required 9 weeks of cold stratification at <10°C for embryo growth, dormancy break and germination to occur. Thus, seeds have morphophysiological dormancy (MPD). Furthermore, GA3 improved the germination percentage and rate at 5°C and promoted 20 and 5% germination of seeds incubated at 15 and 20°C, respectively. Thus, about 20% of the seeds had intermediate complex MPD. For the other seeds in the seed lot, cold stratification (5°C) was the only requirement for dormancy break and germination and GA3 could not substitute for cold stratification. Thus, about 80% of the seeds had deep complex MPD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)85-94
Number of pages10
JournalPlant Species Biology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 The Society for the Study of Species Biology


  • cold stratification
  • dormancy break
  • embryo growth
  • embryo morphology
  • linear embryo

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Ecology
  • Plant Science


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