Depressive symptoms and inflammatory biomarkers in patients with heart failure

Rebecca L. Dekker, Debra K. Moser, Elizabeth G. Tovar, Misook L. Chung, Seongkum Heo, Jia Rong Wu, Sandra B. Dunbar, Susan J. Pressler, Terry A. Lennie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Aim: To determine which inflammatory biomarkers are independently associated with depressive symptoms in heart failure.

Methods and results: We analyzed data from 428 outpatients enrolled in a heart failure registry (32% female, 61 } 12 years, 48% New York Heart Association Class III/IV). Depressive symptoms were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP), cytokines (interleukin 1 receptor antagonist, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10), tumor necrosis alpha, and soluble receptors sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 were measured with enzyme immunoassay. Multiple regressions were used to determine which biomarkers were associated with depressive symptoms controlling for demographics, heart failure severity, and clinical variables. Twenty-seven percent (n = 119) had depressive symptoms. CRP was related to depressive symptoms after controlling for age and gender, but no inflammatory biomarkers were associated with depressive symptoms after controlling for all variables in the model.

Background: Inflammation may be a link between depressive symptoms and outcomes in patients with heart failure. It is not clear whether inflammatory markers are independently related to depressive symptoms in this population.

Conclusions: There was no relationship between inflammatory biomarkers and depressive symptoms. Our findings, in combination with prior researchers', suggest there is not a robust relationship between depressive symptoms and individual biomarkers of inflammation in heart failure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)444-450
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 1 2014

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the American Association of Critical Care Nurses Phillips Medical Research, the American Heart Association (post-doctoral fellowship), the National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Nursing Research (grant numbers K23 NR013480, R01 NR 008567, R01 NR 009280), the University of Kentucky General Clinical Research Center (M01RR02602), the University of Kentucky College of Nursing Center for Biobehavioral Research on Self-Management (NINR, P20 NR 010679), the Emory University General Clinical Research Center (M01RR039) and the Atlanta Veterans Medical Center.

Publisher Copyright:
© The European Society of Cardiology 2013.


  • Inflammation
  • cardiovascular
  • cytokines
  • depression
  • heart failure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Medical–Surgical
  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing


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