Agricultural landscapes in North America have developed through complex interactions of biophysical, socioeconomic and technological forces. While they can be highly productive, these landscapes are increasingly simplified, causing biodiversity loss. As a result, ecosystem services associated with biodiversity are being dismantled. Agricultural landscape structure arises from collective decisions of farmers over long time periods, which are usually not intentionally coordinated beyond the farm scale. Regaining ecosystem services will require active efforts to intentionally redesign landscapes, in part based on ecological evidence about relationships between landscape structure and ecosystem services. Here we focus on services provided by arthropods and how to foster them at landscape scales. We first provide a brief history of how agricultural landscape structure in temperate North America developed and review the landscape-scale ecological drivers underpinning arthropod-based ecosystem services. We then propose ecological and social principles for designing agricultural landscapes, based on the ecological evidence we reviewed and on previous efforts in agricultural landscape design. Finally, we look ahead to discern prospects for putting agricultural landscape design into practice, including ecological, technological and policy opportunities. To reap benefits from arthropod-based services, future agricultural landscapes will need to increase in structural heterogeneity and diversity across multiple dimensions including crop, farmer and consumer diversity. A number of knowledge gaps persist, including how to design landscapes at spatial scales that are relevant to service providers, identifying areas of overlap or conflict between design for ecosystem services and for biodiversity conservation more broadly and navigating the social and political processes needed to implement landscape design.
|Title of host publication||The Future of Agricultural Landscapes, Part II|
|Editors||David A. Bohan, Adam J. Vanbergen|
|Number of pages||60|
|State||Published - Jan 2021|
|Name||Advances in Ecological Research|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
All authors contributed equally to this manuscript. We would like to thank members of the Landis and Gratton labs for comments on prior versions of the manuscript. DAL and NLH acknowledge support for this research was provided by the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research (Award DE-SC0018409), by the National Science Foundation Long-term Ecological Research Program (DEB 1832042) at the Kellogg Biological Station and by Michigan State University AgBioResearch. BI and CG acknowledge support provided by the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative of the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture (Award 2018-67013-28060 and CAP grant 2019-68012-29852).
© 2021 Elsevier Ltd
- Agricultural policy
- Ecosystem services
- Landscape design
- Pest suppression
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics