Designing for Dissemination: Lessons in Message Design From “1-2-3 Pap”

Elisia L. Cohen, Katharine J. Head, Margaret J. McGladrey, Anna G. Hoover, Robin C. Vanderpool, Colleen Bridger, Angela Carman, Richard A. Crosby, Elaine Darling, Mary Tucker-McLaughlin, Nancy Winterbauer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Despite a large number of evidence-based health communication interventions tested in private, public, and community health settings, there is a dearth of research on successful secondary dissemination of these interventions to other audiences. This article presents the case study of “1-2-3 Pap,” a health communication intervention to improve human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake and Pap testing outcomes in Eastern Kentucky, and explores strategies used to disseminate this intervention to other populations in Kentucky, North Carolina, and West Virginia. Through this dissemination project, we identified several health communication intervention design considerations that facilitated our successful dissemination to these other audiences; these intervention design considerations include (a) developing strategies for reaching other potential audiences, (b) identifying intervention message adaptations that might be needed, and (c) determining the most appropriate means or channels by which to reach these potential future audiences. Using “1-2-3 Pap” as an illustrative case study, we describe how careful planning and partnership development early in the intervention development process can improve the potential success of enhancing the reach and effectiveness of an intervention to other audiences beyond the audience for whom the intervention messages were originally designed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)196-207
Number of pages12
JournalHealth Communication
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2015

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Context for dissemination: Specifically, the different types of support for dissemination of the intervention Funding support — Additional funding support from WVIN RCPC

Funding Information:
This publication was supported by cooperative agreement number 1U48DP001932-01 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Publisher Copyright:
© Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Communication


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