Detecting Infections Rapidly and Easily for Candidemia Trial, Part 2 (DIRECT2): A Prospective, Multicenter Study of the T2Candida Panel

Cornelius J. Clancy, Peter G. Pappas, Jose Vazquez, Marc A. Judson, Dimitrios P. Kontoyiannis, George R. Thompson, Kevin W. Garey, Annette Reboli, Richard N. Greenberg, Senu Apewokin, G. Marshall Lyon, Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner, Alan H.B. Wu, Ellis Tobin, M. Hong Nguyen, Angela M. Caliendo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

109 Scopus citations


Background Blood cultures are approximately 50% sensitive for diagnosing invasive candidiasis. The T2Candida nanodiagnostic panel uses T2 magnetic resonance and a dedicated instrument to detect Candida directly within whole blood samples. Methods Patients with Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, or Candida krusei candidemia were identified at 14 centers using diagnostic blood cultures (dBCs). Follow-up blood samples were collected concurrently for testing by T2Candida and companion cultures (cBCs). T2Candida results are reported qualitatively for C. albicans/C. tropicalis, C. glabrata/C. krusei, and C. parapsilosis. T2Candida and cBCs were positive if they detected a species present in the dBC. Results Median time between collection of dBC and T2Candida/cBC samples in 152 patients was 55.5 hours (range, 16.4-148.4). T2Candida and cBCs were positive in 45% (69/152) and 24% (36/152) of patients, respectively (P <.0001). T2Candida clinical sensitivity was 89%, as positive results were obtained in 32/36 patients with positive cBCs. Combined test results were both positive (T2+/cBC+), 21% (32/152); T2+/cBC-, 24% (37/152); T2-/cBC+, 3% (4/152); and T2-/cBC, 52% (79/152). Prior antifungal therapy, neutropenia, and C. albicans candidemia were independently associated with T2Candida positivity and T2+/cBC- results (P values <.05). Conclusions T2Candida was sensitive for diagnosing candidemia at the time of positive blood cultures. In patients receiving antifungal therapy, T2Candida identified bloodstream infections that were missed by cBCs. T2Candida may improve care by shortening times to Candida detection and species identification compared to blood cultures, retaining sensitivity during antifungal therapy and rendering active candidemia unlikely if results are negative. Clinical Trials Registration NCT01525095.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1678-1686
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Issue number11
StatePublished - May 17 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.


  • T2 magnetic resonance
  • T2Candida
  • candidemia
  • candidiasis
  • diagnosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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