Detection of subpopulations in near-infrared reflectance analysis

Robert A. Lodder, Gary M. Hieftje

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


In typical near-infrared multivariate statistical analyses, samples with similar spectra produce points that cluster in a certain region of spectral hyperspace. A new cluster can be created by factors like low-level contamination or instrumental drift. An extention added to part of the BEAST (Bootstrap Error-Adjusted Single-sample Technique) can be used to set nonparametric probability-density contours inside spectral clusters as well as outside, and when multiple points begin to appear in a certain region of cluster-hyperspace the perturbation of these density contours can be detected at an assigned significance level. The detection of false samples both within and beyond 3 SDs of the center of the training set is possible with this method. This procedure is shown to be effective for contaminant levels of a few hundred ppm in an over-the-counter drug capsule, and is shown to function with as few as one or two wavelengths, suggesting its application to very simple process sensors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1500-1512
Number of pages13
JournalApplied Spectroscopy
Issue number8
StatePublished - 1988

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Spectroscopy


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