Developing a shortened measure of negative thinking for use in patients with heart failure

Rebecca L. Dekker, Terry A. Lennie, Lynne A. Hall, Ann R. Peden, Misook L. Chung, Debra K. Moser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Objective: Negative thinking is a target for treatment of depressive symptoms in patients with heart failure (HF). A brief instrument is needed to measure negative thinking in these patients. The study objective was to shorten the Crandell Cognitions Inventory (CCI) for use in patients with HF. Methods: Baseline data from outpatients with HF (N = 179, 30% were female, age 60 ± 13 years) were used to evaluate psychometrics of the CCI. Internal consistency reliability was measured with Cronbach's alpha construct validity with hypothesis testing. Principal components analysis was used in shortening. A separate sample of hospitalized patients with HF (N = 77, 49% were female, age 66 ± 11years) was used to validate the shortened CCI (CCI-SF). Results: The CCI showed evidence of reliability and validity, but there was item redundancy in outpatients with HF. The 12-item CCI-SF showed good evidence of reliability and validity in inpatients with HF. Conclusion: The results support the reliability and validity of the CCI-SF to measure negative thinking in hospitalized patients with HF.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e60-e69
JournalHeart and Lung: Journal of Acute and Critical Care
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2011


  • Cardiovascular
  • Depression
  • Depressive symptoms
  • Heart failure
  • Negative thinking
  • Psychometric

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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