Developing and validating an instrument measuring school leadership

Jianping Shen, Xin Ma, Xingyuan Gao, Louann Bierlien Palmer, Sue Poppink, Walter Burt, Robert Leneway, Dennis McCrumb, Charles Pearson, Mark Rainey, Patricia Reeves, Gary Wegenke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


In this study, we developed and validated an instrument that researchers can use to measure the collective effort of principals and teachers who excise their own unique leadership to generate (integrated) school leadership. Based on 644 teachers, we found sound psychometric properties of the scales of the instrument and the instrument as a whole. We also explored the predictive properties of the instrument in predicting student achievement at the school level. Based on 53 schools, we found that the instrument can indeed measure the kind of school leadership that really matters to student achievement. When predicting student achievement (at the school level), the instrument tends to be more sensitive to more difficult school subjects (e.g. mathematics), implying that improvement in school leadership would lead to larger improvement in student achievement (at the school level) in more difficult school subjects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)402-421
Number of pages20
JournalEducational Studies
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 4 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018, © 2018 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


  • School leadership
  • instrument development
  • school renewal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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