Developing and validating an instrument measuring school renewal: testing the factorial validity and reliability

Jianping Shen, Xin Ma, Nancy Mansberger, Louann Bierlein Palmer, Walter Burt, Robert Leneway, Patricia Reeves, Sue Poppink, Dennis McCrumb, Elizabeth Whitten, Xingyuan Gao, Huang Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


For this paper, we developed and validated the Orientation to School Renewal instrument,a 21-item instrument, based on seven factors, which allows schools to measure their school renewal efforts. The research is based on Goodlad’s notion of school renewal. Through an extensive literature review and our work over an eight-year period engaged in discussions with over 110 principals and 300 teachers, we gradually developed dimensions of the construct of school renewal. We then obtained survey data from a sample of 1,195 teachers in 83 schools, and validated the instrument using confirmatory factor analysis and other procedures. The seven factors identified from the literature and discussions with K-12 educators and confirmed via the validation process included: (a) focus on students and their achievements, (b) continuous school improvement, (c) balance between the internal and external influences, (d) the dialogue, decision, action and evaluation (DDAE) process, (e) implementation integrity, (f) implementers as active developers, and (g) internal responsibility and professionalism. Researchers and practitioners can use the instrument to collect valid and reliable data to measure, evaluate, and understand school renewal.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Leadership in Education
StateAccepted/In press - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Strategy and Management


Dive into the research topics of 'Developing and validating an instrument measuring school renewal: testing the factorial validity and reliability'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this