Phosphatase of Regenerating Liver-3 (PRL-3) is associated with cancer progression and metastasis. The mechanisms that drive PRL-3's oncogenic functions are not well understood, partly due to a lack of research tools available to study this protein. We have begun to address these issues by developing alpaca-derived single domain antibodies, or nanobodies, targeting PRL-3 with a KD of 30-300 nM and no activity towards highly homologous family members PRL-1 and PRL-2. We found that longer and charged N-terminal tags on PRL-3, such as GFP and FLAG, changed PRL-3 localization compared to untagged protein, indicating that the nanobodies may provide new insights into PRL-3 trafficking and function. The nanobodies perform equally, if not better, than commercially available antibodies in immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation. Finally, hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) showed that the nanobodies bind partially within the PRL-3 active site and can interfere with PRL-3 phosphatase activity. Co-immunoprecipitation with a known PRL-3 active site binding partner, the CBS domain of metal transporter CNNM3, showed that the nanobodies reduced the amount of PRL-3:CBS inter-action. The potential of blocking this interaction is highly relevant in cancer, as multiple research groups have shown that PRL-3 binding to CNNM proteins is sufficient to promote metastatic growth in mouse models. The anti-PRL-3 nanobodies represent an important expansion of the research tools available to study PRL-3 function and can be used to define the role of PRL-3 in cancer progression.
|Issue number||5 May|
|State||Published - May 2023|
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2023 Smith et al.
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