Development and evaluation of a new short form of the conformity to masculine norms inventory (CMNI-30)

Ronald F. Levant, Ryon McDermott, Mike C. Parent, Nuha Alshabani, James R. Mahalik, Joseph H. Hammer

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60 Scopus citations


The Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory (CMNI) has been an important tool in researching masculinity. With the original measure at 94 items (Mahalik et al., 2003), there have been several abbreviated forms developed from 11 to 55 items. However, in confirmatory factor analyses (CFA's) testing 13 common factors, bifactor, hierarchical, and unidimensional models, only 4 models demonstrated adequate fit to the data, and most of these were for the still quite long 46-item version. As a result, there was no psychometrically strong truly short form of the CMNI. In the present study, data from 1561 community and university men were used to develop a short form. First an exploratory factor analysis using a portion of the data was conducted, which resulted in a 10-subscale dimensionality, followed by CFA estimating a common factors model. The results of the CFA were used to create two candidate models for a 30-item short form of the CMNI, based on Classical test theory (CTT) and optimized CTT. The best-fitting candidate model for the CMNI-30 was CTT. Next, the fit of the 29, 46, and 94 item models were compared to the 30-item version, which had the superior fit. Then, measurement invariance between White men and men of color was assessed, choosing this comparison because hegemonic masculinity is theorized to marginalize men of color. Evidence was found for full configural and metric, and partial scalar and residuals invariance. Finally, significant relationships between CMNI-30 scores and indicators of depression and anxiety provides preliminary concurrent evidence for its validity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)622-636
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Counseling Psychology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 American Psychological Association.


  • Confirmatory factor analysis
  • Conformity to masculine norms inventory
  • Measurement invariance/equivalence
  • Validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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